The CarboShield system can be designed to withstand all applied forces that are acting on the existing pile. In this approach, no surface prep of the existing pile is required. If composite action, or only protection of existing pile is desired, careful surface preparation of the existing pile is necessary. Surface preparation can be accomplished with high-pressure water blasting or mechanical grinding. The prepared surface must be free of all biological buildups, laitance or other contaminants that can inhibit the bond of the grout with the existing pile surface.